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The energetic demands under matches for high level judo athlets - Judo Development

The energetic demands under matches for high level judo athlets

In judo the anaerobic system contributes in short ‘all-out’ performances under the match and both the aerobic effect and capacity is important, because they can help the athletes sustain a higher intensity under the whole match, but also delay the accumulation of metabolites connected with the fatigue process.

In a study from Julio and colegues from 2017 could show the difference in energy contribution under simulated judomatches. Under these matches the oxidative energy system contributed with 70 % of the total energy under the whole match, while the glycolytic system contributed with 8 % of the total energy, and the ATP-PCr system contributed with 21 % of the energy.

The usage of the ATP-PCr energy system had a higer contrubution compared with the glycolytic system for the first 3 minutes of the match. Under the whole match the oxidative energy system then increased from 50% to 81 % of the total energy, while the ATP-PCr decresed from 40 to 12 % and and the glycolytic system was maintained between 6 and 10 %.

Under the judomatches the athletes had a higher usage of V̇O2 under the match in the resting periods rather then under the effort periods. This could be a resulult of the energy supply from ATP-PCr is limited, and the accumulation of metabolites due to the activiation of glycolytic metabolism can’t recover under the short resting periods. The increase of the oxidative energetic system could then be a response to the lack of restoring the other two systems in the short resting periods

As mentiond before in 1995 the sicentist Gariod with colegues did find with both video analysis and physiological testing that there are two types of judo fighter,  the endurance fighters and the explosive fighters. Their findings from video analysis showed that the explosive fighters were more eager to win at the beginning of the match and the endurance fighter winning rather at the end of the match. The physiological findings then showed that the endurance fighter had 15,7 % higher VO2max, took half the time (~50 seconds) to recover PCr than the explosive fighters, and could work 30,9 % longer before reaching fifty percent power loss. On the other hand the explosive fighter could perform 11 % higher values for relative peak power at wingate test.  This result could then reflect on the type of tactics the both fighters would use during fights where the explosive fighter will rely on a quick, precise and explosive technique and not be so dynamic in the fight. On the other hand the endurance fighter will be more dynamic and have a higher frequency of techniques.

The study from Franchini and associates from 2011 shows that there were good correlation between peak power 66 % and mean power 68 % at upper body wingate test and the amount of matches won at high level competitions, there is also a strong correlation between performance in two repeated Wingate test 76 % and the number of attacks performed under simulated judo matches. This could be due to the physical demand that judo puts on the upper body, especially on the anaerobic energetic system. 

References

Castarlenas J.L, och Sole J.O. (1997) El entrenamiento de la resistencia en los deportes lucha con agarre: una propuesta integradora. Educ Fís Deportes, 47: 81-86.

 Franchini E, Boscolo Del Vecchio F, Matsushigue K.A, Artioli, G.G, (2011) Physiological Profiles of Elite Judo Athletes, Sports Med; 41 (2): 147-166. 

Franchini E, Takito Y.M, Nakamura F.Y, Matsushigue K.A, och Kiss M.A.P.D.M (2003) Effects of recovery type after a judo combat on blood lactate removal and on performance in an intermittent anaerobic task. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 43(4): 424-431.

Gariod L, Favre-Juvin A, Novel V, Reutenauer H, Majean H, och Rossi A. (1995) Evaluation du profit énergetique des judokas par spectroscopie RMN du P31. Sci. Sports 10: 201–207.

Julio U.F,  Panissa J.L.G, Esteves J.V, Cury R.L, Agostinho M.F, & Franchini E, (2017) Energy-System Contributions to Simulated Judo Matches. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12, 676 -683.